The human impact on the environment is evident across the planet. The resulting loss of biodiversity constitutes a social and environmental emergency, and calls have been made for the expansion and creation of protected areas around the world to address this crisis. This reality also applies to São Tomé and Príncipe; the islands form a biodiversity hotspot, and at the same time it is one of the regions most susceptible to the impacts of human activities worldwide.
A key conservation measure that targets species and habitats, as well as broader ecosystem functions and services, is the designation of protected areas. A International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)) define área protegida como:
"A clearly defined, recognised, dedicated and managed geographic space, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values"
São Tomé and Príncipe has two protected zones, one on each island and they cover approximately 30% of the country's land area. The protected area on the island of São Tomé is called the Obô de São Tomé National Park (PNOST) , it was established in 2006 by law No.
- Massif Central - mountainous area in the southwest center;
- Landscape of the savannah of Praia das Conchas / Lagoa Azul in the North;
- Mangroves of Malanza, in the south and totaling 25,274 hectares.
The protected area on the island of Príncipe, known as the Obô do Príncipe Natural Park, was established in 2006 by law No.
- Príncipe forests, in the south of the island;
- Olive Forest, in the northwest of the island and totaling 6,500 hectares.
It should also be noted that the entire island of Príncipe, as well as the islets Bem-bom, Boné do Joquei, Mosteiros, Santana, Pedra da Galei, Tinhosa Grande and Tinhosa Pequena, as well as the surrounding habitats, form part of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve since 2012 and comprises a total area of 71,593 hectares. However, there is no legal national status.
|Year of establishment
|Obô Natural Park of São Tomé (PNOST)
|Massif Central, mountainous area in southwest center in ST
|2006 (Law 6/2006)
|Protected Landscape Area of Praia das Conchas / Lagoa Azul in the north of ST
|Mangroves of the Malanza Nature Reserve, in the south of ST
|Obô do Príncipe Natural Park (PNP)
|Príncipe forests, in the south of the island
|2006 (Law 7/2006)
|Olive Forest, in the northwest of the island
|Principe Biosphere Reserve
|Príncipe and islets Bom Bom, Boné do Jockey, Mosteiros, Santana, Pedra da Galei, Tinhosa Grande and Tinhosa Pequena, as well as the surrounding habitats
|2012, but no legal national statute exists
São Tomé, 26 de Julho de 2023